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SoyFACE, University of Illinois, USDA, ARS


Photo of researchers in a field


2019 - 2018 - 2017 - 2016 - 2015 -2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007 - 2006 - 2005 - 2004 - 2003 - 2002


Koehler IH, Huber SC, Bernacchi CJ, Baxter IR (2019) Increased temperatures may safeguard the nutritional quality of crops under future elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant Journal 97, 872-886.

Sorgini CA, Barrios-Perez I, Brown PJ, Ainsworth EA (2019) Mapping oxidative stress response QTL in B73-Mo17 nearly isogenic lines. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2019.00051.

Li S, Courbet G, Ourry A, Ainsworth EA (2019) Elevated ozone concentration reduces photosynthetic carbon gain but does not alter leaf structural traits, nutrient composition or whole plant biomass in switchgrass. Plants 8, 85. doi:10.3390/plants8040085.


Bishop KA*, Lemonnier P*, Quebedeaux JC, Montes CM, Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA (2018) Similar photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in species with different phloem loading strategies. Photosynthesis Research 137, 453–464.

Jin Z, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Lobell DB (2018) Increasing drought and diminishing benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean yields across the US Midwest. Global Change Biology 24, 522-533.

Ruiz-Vera UM, Siebers MH, Ort DR, Bernacchi CJ (2018) Canopy warming accelerates development in soybean and maize, offsetting the delay in soybean reproductive development by elevated CO2 concentrations.


Wang P, Marsh E, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Sheflin AM, Schachtman D (2017) Shifts in microbial diversity in agricultural soils, rhizosphere and roots in two major cropping systems under elevated CO2 and O3. Scientific Reports 7:15109.

Yendrek CR, Erice G, Montes CM, Tomaz T, Sorgini CA, Brown PJ, McIntyre LM, Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA (2017) Elevated ozone reduces photosynthetic carbon gain by accelerating leaf senescence of inbred and hybrid maize in a genotype-specific manner. Plant, Cell & Environment 40: 3088-3100.

Sanz-Sáez A, Koester RP, Rosenthal DM, Montes CM, Ort DR, Ainsworth EA (2017) Leaf and canopy scale drivers of genotypic variation in soybean response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Global Change Biology 23: 3908-3920.

Siebers MH, Slattery RA, Yendrek CR, Locke AM, Drag D, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR (2017) Simulated heat waves during maize reproductive growth stages alter reproductive growth but have no lasting effect when applied during vegetative stages. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 240: 162-170.

Yendrek CR, Tomaz T, Montes CM, Cao Y, Morse AM, Brown PJ, McIntyre LM, Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA (2017) High-throughput phenotyping of maize leaf physiological and biochemical traits using hyperspectral reflectance. Plant Physiology 173: 614-626.

Leisner CP, Yendrek CR, Ainsworth EA (2017) Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress. BMC Plant Biology 17: 242.

Ruiz-Vera UM, De Souza AP, Long SP, Ort DR (2017) The role of sink strength and nitrogen availability in the down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity in field-grown Nicotiana tabacum L. at elevated CO2 concentration. Frontiers in Plant Science. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00998.


Gray SB, Siebers M, Locke AM, Rosenthal D, Strellner R, Paul RE, Klein SP, McGrath JM, Dermody O, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Long SP, Ort DR, Leakey ADB (2016) Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated [CO2] for soybean. Nature Plants 2: 16132.

Oikawa S, Ainsworth EA (2016) Changes in leaf area, nitrogen and canopy photosynthesis of soybean stands along an ozone concentration gradient. Environmental Pollution 215: 347-355.

Köhler IH, Bernacchi CJ, Ruiz-Vera UM, Vanloocke A, Thomey M, Clemente T, Long SP, Ort DR (2016) Expression of cyanobacterial FBP/SBPase in soybean prevents yield depression under future climate conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 68:715-726.


Ainsworth EA, Serbin SP, Skoneczka JA, Townsend PA (2014) Using leaf optical properties to detect ozone effects on foliar biochemistry. Photosynthesis Research 119: 65-76

Bishop KA, Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA (2014) How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: A global analysis of open top chamber and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) studies. Food & Energy Security, accepted

Drewry DT, Kumar P, Long SP (2014) Simultaneous improvement in productivity, water use, and albedo through crop structural modification. Global Change Biology 20(6): 1955-1967

He ZL, Xiong JB, Kent AD, Deng Y, Xue K, et al (2014) Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O-3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem. Isme Journal 8: 714-726

RJC Markelz, LN Vossler, ADB Leakey (2014) Developmental stage specificity of transcriptional, biochemical and CO2 efflux responses of leaf dark respiration to growth of Arabidopsis thaliana at elevated [CO2]. Plant, Cell & Environment. In press

SS Myers, A Zanobetti, I Kloog, P Huybers, ADB Leakey, A Bloom, E Carlisle, LH Dietterich, G Fitzgerald, T Hasegawa, NM Holbrook, RL Nelson, MJ Ottman, V Raboy, H Sakai, KA Sartor, J Schwartz, S Seneweera, M Tausz, Y Usui (2014) Rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 threatens human nutrition. Nature. In press


Agindotan BO, Prasifka JR, Gray ME, Dietrich CH, Bradley CA (2013) Transmission of Switchgrass mosaic virus by Graminella aureovittata. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 35(3): 384-389

de Souza AP, Arundale RA, Dohleman FG, Long SP, Buckeridge MS (2013) Will the exceptional productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus increase further under rising atmospheric CO2? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 171: 82-92

Gray SB, Strellner RS, Puthuval KK, Shulman R, Siebers MH, Rogers A, Leakey ADB (2013) Minirhizotron imaging reveals nodulation of field-grown soybean is enhanced by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment only when combined with drought stress. Functional Plant Biology 40: 137-147

Gray SB, Strellner RS, Puthuval KK, Shulman R, Siebers MH, Rogers A, Leakey ADB (2013) Nodulation of field-grown soybean is enhanced by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment only when combined with drought stress. Functional Plant Biology 40(2): 137-147

Hussain MZ, Vanloocke A, Siebers MH, Ruiz-Vera UM, Markelz RJC, Leakey ADB, Ort DR, Bernacchi CJ (2013) Future carbon dioxide concentration decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion by field-grown maize. Global Change Biology 19: 1572-1584

Locke AM, Sack L, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR (2013) Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field.  Annals of Botany 112 (5):  911-918

Pereira EIP, Chung H, Scow K, Six J (2013) Microbial Communities and Soil Structure are Affected by Reduced Precipitation, but Not by Elevated Carbon Dioxide. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77: 482-488

Ruiz-Vera UM, Siebers M, Gray SB, Drag DW, Rosenthal DM, Kimball BA, … Bernacchi CJ (2013) Global warming can negate the expected CO2 stimulation in photosynthesis and productivity for soybean grown in the Midwestern United States. Plant Physiology 162(1): 410-423

TE Twine, JJ Bryant, K Richter, CJ Bernacchi, K McConnaughay, S Morris, ADB Leakey (2013) Impacts of elevated CO2 concentration on the productivity and surface energy budget of the soybean and maize agroecosystem in the Midwest U.S. Global Change Biology 19: 2838-2852  

Yendrek CR, Leisner CP, Ainsworth EA (2013) Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris. Global Change Biology 19: 3155-3166


Ainsworth EA, Yendrek CR, Sitch S, Collins WJ, Emberson LD (2012) The effects of tropospheric ozone on net primary production and implications for climate change. Annual Review of Plant Biology 63: 637-661

Betzelberger AM, Yendrek CR, Sun J, Leisner CP, Nelson RL, Ort DR, Ainsworth EA (2012) Ozone exposure response for U.S. soybean cultivars: linear reductions in photosynthetic potential, biomass and yield. Plant Physiology 160: 1827-1839

Burkey KO, Booker FL, Ainsworth EA, Nelson RL (2012) Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system. Environmental Pollution 166: 167-171

CL Casteel, OK Niziolek, ADB Leakey, MR Berenbaum, EH DeLucia (2012) Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone transcript induction in Glycine max after Popillia japonica feeding. Environmental Entomology 6: 439-447

Davis AS, Ainsworth EA (2012) Weed interference with field-grown soybean (Glycine max) decreases under elevated [CO2] in a FACE experiment. Weed Research 52: 277-285

Decock C, Chung H, Venterea R, Gray SB, Leakey ADB, Six J (2012) Elevated CO2 and O3 modify N turnover rates, but not N2O emissions in a soybean agroecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 51: 104-114

Decock C, Six J, (2012) Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on N-cycling and N2O emissions: a short-term laboratory assessment. Plant and Soil 351: 277-292

Galant A, Koester RP, Ainsworth EA, Hicks LM, Jez JM (2012) From climate change to molecular response: redox proteomics of ozone-induced responses in soybean. New Phytologist 194: 220-229

Gillespie KM, Xu F, Richter KT, McGrath JM, Markelz RJ, Ort DR, Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA (2012) Greater antioxidant and respiratory metabolism in field-grown soybean exposed to elevated O3 under both ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant Cell & Environment 35: 169-184

Leakey ADB, Bishop KA, Ainsworth EA (2012) A multi-biome gap in understanding of crop and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 15: 228-236

ADB Leakey, JA Lau (2012) Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367: 613-629.

Leisner CP, Ainsworth EA (2012) Quantifying the effects of ozone on plant reproductive growth and development. Global Change Biology 18: 606-616

Rosenthal DM, Ort DR (2012) Examining cassava’s potential to enhance food security under climate change. Tropical Plant Biology 5(1): 30-38

Rosenthal DM, Slattery RA, Miller RE, Grennan AK, Gleadow RM, Cavagnaro TR, Fauquet CM, Ort DR (2012) Cassava about-FACE: greater than expected yield stimulation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) by future CO2 levels. Global Change Biology 18: 2661-2675

VanLoocke A, Betzelberger AM, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ (2012) Increasing ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature. New Phytologist 195: 164-171

S Vicca, AK Gilgen, S Camino, FE Dreesen, JS Dukes, M Estiarte, SB Gray, G Guidolotti, ADB Leakey, R Ogaya, DR Ort, M Ostrogovic, S Rambal J Sardans, M Schmitt, M Siebers, L van der Linden, O van Straaten, A Granier (2012) Urgent need for basic treatment data to make precipitation manipulation experiments comparable. New Phytologist 195: 518-522


CJ Bernacchi, ADB Leakey, BA Kimball, DR Ort (2011) Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion. Environmental Pollution 159: 1464-1472

Gillespie KM, Rogers A, Ainsworth EA (2011) Long-term exposure to elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 2667-2678

RJC Markelz, RS Strellner, ADB Leakey (2011) Impairment of C4 photosynthesis by drought is exacerbated by limiting nitrogen and ameliorated by elevated [CO2] in maize. Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 3235-3246

O'Neill BF, Zangerl AR, DeLucia EH, Casteel C, Zavala JA, et al (2011) Leaf temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population growth. Insect Science 18: 419-425

Rosenthal DM, Locke AM, Khozaei M, Raines CA, Long SP, Ort DR (2011) Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE). BMC Plant Biology 11(1): 123

Pereira, EIP, Chung H, Scow KM, Sadowsky MJ, van Kessel C, Six JW (2011) Soil Nitrogen Transformations Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2 And O3 During The Soybean Growing Season. Environmental Pollution, 159: 401-407


Moran KK, Jastrow JD (2010) Elevated carbon dioxide does not offset loss of soil carbon from a corn–soybean agroecosystem. Environmental Pollution 158(4): 1088-1094

Betzelberger AM, Gillespie KM, McGrath JM, Koester RP, Nelson RL, Ainsworth EA (2010) Biochemical, physiological and yield variation in soybean cultivar responses to chronic elevated ozone concentration. Plant, Cell Environment 33: 1569-1581

Rascher U, Biskup B, Leakey ADB, McGrath JM, Ainsworth EA (2010) Altered physiological function, not structure, drives increased radiation-use efficiency of soybean grown at elevated CO2. Photosynthesis Research 105: 15-25

Drewry DT, Kumar P, Long S, Bernacchi C, Liang XZ, Sivapalan M (2010) Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 2. Role of acclimation under elevated CO2. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 115, G04023

Gray SB, Dermody O, DeLucia EH (2010) Spectral reflectance from a soybean canopy exposed to elevated CO2 and O3. Journal of Experimental Botany 61, 4413-4422

Fishman J, Creilson JK, Parker PA, Ainsworth EA, Vining GG, Szarka J, Booker FL, Xu X (2010) An investigation of widespread ozone damage to the soybean crop in the upper Midwest determined from ground-based and satellite measurements. Atmospheric Environment 44: 2248-2256

Percy KE, Matyssek R, King JS (2010) Facing the future: evidence from joint Aspen FACE, SoyFACE and SFB 607 meeting. Environmental Pollution 158, 955-958

Eastburn DM, Degennaro MM, DeLucia EH, Dermody O, McElrone AJ (2010) Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone alter soybean diseases at SoyFACE. Global Change Biology 16, 320-330

Bilgin DD, Zavala JA, Zhu J, Clough SJ, Ort DR, DeLucia EH (2010) Biotic stress globally downregulates photosynthesis genes. Plant Cell and Environment, 33: 1597-1613

Stohr C, Darmody RG, Wimmer B, Krapac I, Hackley K, Iranmanesh A, Leakey ADB (2010) Detecting Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Soybeans by Aerial Thermal Infrared Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering And Remote Sensing 76: 735-741


Cheeseman J (2009) Seasonal patterns of leaf H2O2 content: reflections of leaf phenology, or environmental stress? Functional Plant Biology 36: 721-731

Rogers A, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB (2009) Will elevated carbon dioxide concentration amplify the benefits of nitrogen fixation in legumes? Plant Physiology 151: 1009-1016

Wittig, VE; Ainsworth, EA; Naidu, SL; Karnosky, DF; Long, SP (2009) Quantifying the impact of current and future tropospheric ozone on tree biomass, growth, physiology and biochemistry: a quantitative meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 15: 396 -424

Chen, CP; Frank, TD; Long, SP (2009) Is a short, sharp shock equivalent to long-term punishment? Contrasting the spatial pattern of acute and chronic ozone damage to soybean leaves via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant, Cell And Environment 32: 327 -335

Castro, JC; Dohleman, FG; Bernacchi, CJ; Long, SP (2009) Elevated CO2 significantly delays reproductive development of soybean under Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE). Journal Of Experimental Botany 60: 2945-2951

Leakey, ADB (2009) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C-4 crops for food and fuel. Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 276: 2333-2343

Zavala, JA; Casteel, CL; Nabity, PD; Berenbaum, MR; DeLucia, EH (2009) Role of cysteine proteinase inhibitors in preference of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) for soybean (Glycine max) leaves of different ages and grown under elevated CO2. Oecologia 161: 35-41

Lokupitiya, E; Denning, S; Paustian, K; Baker, I; Schaefer, K; Verma, S; Meyers, T; Bernacchi, CJ; Suyker, A; Fischer, M (2009) Incorporation of crop phenology in Simple Biosphere Model (SiBcrop) to improve land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from croplands. Biogeosciences 6: 969-986

Nabity, PD; Zavala, JA; DeLucia, EH (2009) Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory. Annals Of Botany 103: 655-663

Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 2859-2876

Leakey ADB, Xu F, Gillespie KM, McGrath JM, Ainsworth EA, Ort DR (2009) The genomic basis for stimulated respiratory carbon loss to the atmosphere by plants growing under elevated [CO2]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (2009) 106: 3597-3602

Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernard SM, Markelz RJC, Ort DR, Placella SA, Rogers A, Smith MD, Sudderth EA, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD, Yuan SH (2009) Gene expression profiling: opening the black box of plant ecosystem responses to global change. Global Change Biology 15: 1201-1213

Bernacchi CJ, Leakey ADB, Heady LE, Morgan PB, Dohleman FG, McGrath JM, Gillespie KM, Wittig VE, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009) Hourly and seasonal variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of soybean grown at future CO2 and ozone concentrations for three years under fully open air field conditions. Plant Cell and Environment 31: 1673-1687


Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Leakey ADB (2008) Targets for crop biotechnology in a future high-CO2 and high-O-3 world. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 147: 13-19

Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Ort DR, Long SP (2008) >FACE-ing the facts: inconsistencies and interdependence among field, chamber and modeling studies of elevated [CO2] impacts on crop yield and food supply. New Phytologist 179: 5-9

Casteel CL, O'Neill BF, Zavala JA, Bilgin DD, Berenbaum MR, DeLucia EH (2008) Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O-3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica). Plant, Cell & Environment 31: 419-434

DeLucia EH, Casteel CL, Nabity PD, O'Neill BF (2008) Insects take a bigger bite out of plants in a warmer, higher carbon dioxide world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 1781-1782

Rascher U and Pieruschka R (2008) Spatio-temporal variations of photosynthesis - The potential of optical remote sensing to better understand and scale light use efficiency and stresses of plant ecosystems. Precision Agriculture, 9: 355-366

Dermody O, Long SP, McConnaughay K (2008) How do elevated CO2 and O-3 affect the interception and utilization of radiation by a soybean canopy? Global Change Biology 14: 556-564

Zavala JA, Casteel CL, DeLucia EH, Berenbaum MR (2008) Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 5129-5133


Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Leakey ADB, Heady LE, Gibon Y, Stitt M, Schurr U (2007) >Does elevated atmospheric [CO2] alter diurnal C uptake and the balance of C and N metabolites in growing and fully expanded soybean leaves? Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 579-591

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 258-270

Biskup B, Scharr H, Schurr U, Rascher U (2007) A stereo imaging system for measuring structural parameters of plant canopies. Plant, Cell and Environment 30: 1299-1308

Bernacchi CJ, Kimball BA, Quarles DR, Long SP, Ort DR (2007) Decreases in stomatal conductance of soybean under open-air elevation of [CO2] are closely coupled with decreases in ecosystem evapotranspiration. Plant Physiology 143: 134-144

Li PH, Bohnert HJ, Grene R (2007) All about FACE - plants in a high-[CO2] world. Trends in Plant Science 12: 87-89

Li P, Sioson AA, Mane SP, Ulanov A, Grothaus G, Heath LS, Murali TM, Bohnert HJ, Grene R. (2007) Response Diversity of/ Arabidopsis thaliana/ ecotypes in elevated [CO2] in the field. Plant Molecular Biology 62: 593-609

Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Ort DR, Nosberger J, Schimel D. (2007) Crop models, CO2, and climate change - Response. Science 315, 460-460

Wittig VE, Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2007) To what extent do current and projected increases in surface ozone affect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees? A meta-analytic review of the last 3 decades of experiments. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 1150-1162


Ainsworth E.A., Rogers A., Vodkin L.O., Walter A., & Schurr U. (2006). The Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Soybean Gene Expression. An Analysis of Growing and Mature Leaves. Plant Physiology 142: 135-147.

Cheeseman J.M. (2006) Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in leaves under natural conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57: 2435-2444.

Christ M.M., Ainsworth E.A., Nelson R., Schurr U. & Walter A. (2006) Anticipated yield loss in field-grown soybean under elevated ozone can be avoided at the expense of leaf growth during early reproductive growth stages in favourable environmental conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57: 2267-2275.

Dermody O, Long SP, DeLucia EH (2006) How does elevated CO2 or ozone affect the leaf-area index of soybean when applied independently? New Phytologist 169: 145-155

Leakey A.D.B., Bernacchi C.J., Ort D.R. & Long S.P. (2006) Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions. Plant Cell and Environment, 29: 1794-1800.

Leakey A.D.B., Uribelarrea M, Ainsworth EA, Naidu SL, Rogers A, Ort DR, Long SP (2006) Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought. Plant Physiology 140: 779-790

Li PH, Mane SP, Sioson AA, Robinet CV, Heath LS, Bohnert HJ, Grene R (2006) Effects of chronic ozone exposure on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and in Thellungielia halophila. Plant Cell And Environment 29: 854-868

Long SP, Ainswoth EA, Leakey ADB, Nösberger J, Ort DR (2006) Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations. Science 312: 1918 - 1921.

Morgan PB, Mies TA, Bollero GA, Nelson RL, Long SP (2006) Season-long elevation of ozone concentration to projected 2050 levels under fully open-air conditions substantially decreases the growth and production of soybean. New Phytologist 170: 333-343

Ort DR, et al. (2006) SoyFACE: The effects and interactions of elevated CO2 and O3 on soybean. In: Nosberger J et al. (eds) Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes and Perspectives. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 71-86.

Prior S.A., Torbert H.A., Runion G.B., Rogers H.H., Ort D.R. & Nelson R.L. (2006) Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment of soybean: Influence of crop variety on residue decomposition. Journal Of Environmental Quality, 35: 1470-1477.

Rogers A, Gibon Y, Stitt M, Morgan PB, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR, Long SP. Increased C availability at elevated carbon dioxide concentration improves N assimilation in a legume. Plant Cell And Environment 29 : 1651-1658, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01549.x

Schroeder JB, Gray ME, Ratcliffe ST, Estes RE, Long SP (2006) Effects of Elevated CO2 and O3 on a Variant of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environmental Entomology 35: 637-644


Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytologist 165: 351-372.

Aldea M, Hamilton JG, Resti JP, Zangerl AR, Berenbaum MR, DeLucia EH (2005) Indirect effects of insect herbivory on leaf gas exchange in soybean. Plant Cell And Environment 28: 402-411

Bernacchi CJ, Morgan PB, Ort DR, Long SP (2005) The growth of soybean under free air [CO2] enrichment (FACE) stimulates photosynthesis while decreasing in vivo Rubisco capacity. Planta 220: 434-446

Hamilton JG, Dermody O, Aldea M, Zangerl AR, Rogers A, Berenbaum MR, DeLucia EH (2005) Anthropogenic changes in tropospheric composition increase susceptibility of soybean to insect herbivory. Environmental Entomology 34: 479-485

Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Morgan PB (2005) Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields. Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 360: 2011-2020

Morgan PB, Bollero GA, Nelson RL, Dohleman FG, Long SP (2005) Smaller than predicted increase in aboveground net primary production and yield of field-grown soybean under fully open-air [CO2] elevation. Global Change Biology 11: 1856-1865


Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Nelson R, Long SP (2004) Testing the "source-sink" hypothesis of down-regulation of photosynthesis in elevated [CO2] in the field with single gene substitutions in Glycine max. Agricultural And Forest Meteorology 122: 85-94

Leakey ADB, Bernacchi CJ, Dohleman FG, Ort DR, Long SP (2004) Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [CO2] rich atmospheres? An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE). Global Change Biology 10: 951-962

Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: Plants face the future. Annual Review Of Plant Biology 55: 591-628

Miyazaki S, Fredricksen M, Hollis KC, Poroyko V, Shepley D, Galbraith DW, Long SP, Bohnert HJ (2004) Transcript expression profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under controlled conditions and open-air elevated concentrations of CO2 and of O3. Field Crops Research 90: 47-59

Morgan PB, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR, Long SP (2004) An in vivo analysis of the effect of season-long open-air elevation of ozone to anticipated 2050 levels on photosynthesis in soybean. Plant Physiology 135: 2348-2357

Rogers A, Allen DJ, Davey PA, Morgan PB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Cornic G, Dermody O, Dohleman FG, Heaton EA, Mahoney J, Zhu XG, Delucia EH, Ort DR, Long SP (2004) Leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate dynamics of soybeans grown throughout their life-cycle under Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment. Plant Cell And Environment 27: 449-458


Morgan PB, Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2003) How does elevated ozone impact soybean? A meta-analysis of photosynthesis, growth and yield. Plant Cell And Environment 26: 1317-1328


Ainsworth EA, Davey PA, Bernacchi CJ, Dermody OC, Heaton EA, Moore DJ, Morgan PB, Naidu SL, Ra HSY, Zhu XG, Curtis PS, Long SP (2002) A meta-analysis of elevated [CO2] effects on soybean (Glycine max) physiology, growth and yield. Global Change Biology 8: 695-709

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